The Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology has moved to a new website. You are currently visiting the old website of the journal. To access the latest content, please visit
Review Article

Distress, Depression, Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease: A Call to Action

Volume 3, Oct 2014

Rick Levy MD, Washington D.C., USA

 Research surrounding the relationship between depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rich and rapidly evolving. This research article shows that depression, anxiety, and subsyndromal symptoms of these disorders known as distress (i.e., chronic anger, worry, hopelessness) are significant independent risk factors for CVD both etiologically and prognostically – as significant as smoking. On this basis the American Heart Association listed depression as a major independent risk factor for heart disease in February of 2014 and strengthened its guidelines for the screening and treatment of depression in people with heart disease.

Volume 3, Number 4, Pages: 01-34 

Full text of this article: HTML  | PDF